The Institute of Behavioral Research (IBR) was established in 1962 by Saul B. Sells to conduct research on personality structure, personnel selection, social interactions, and organizational functioning. This work included pioneering research using first-generation computers for integrating personality theories through large-scale factor analysis, development of performance-based criterion selection strategies for airline pilots, and formulation of personal distance needs for humans during long-duration space missions. In 1968, the IBR was invited to develop and conduct the first federally-funded national evaluation of the newly formed community-based system for treating heroin addiction in the U.S. This work helped define methodological standards for addiction treatment process and follow-up outcome studies in natural field settings, and the IBR has participated in all three major national treatment effectiveness studies funded by the National Institutes of Health. Conceptual frameworks emerging from this research for evaluating treatment dynamics, outcomes, and change—both at the individual client and organizational functioning levels—have yielded assessment and intervention resources as well as implementation strategies now being used internationally.